‘Shin splints’ is often the generic term used for lower leg pain, but when accurately diagnosed, shin splints are known medically as medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). This condition refers to pain in the shins, the front part of the lower legs, and is an inflammation of the connective muscle tissue surrounding the front of the tibia. The pain is commonly brought on by strenuous activity, especially stop-start sports such as tennis and basketball, as well as running on hard or uneven surfaces. Dancers also commonly suffer with shin splints. It is never advisable to run or dance through the pain of shin splints as this can lead to stress fractures of the bone - shin pain is an indication that there is already damage to the muscle and/or bone therefore exercising further can cause more intense pain, longer recovery and more damage to the area. Shin splints are often seen with people who have ‘flat feet’, this overpronation involves excessive rolling inwards which can cause the tibia to twist or the lower muscles to over-stretch. Those people who lean forward, or back too much or those that run with their toes pointing inwards may also be prone to shin splints. Women also have an increased risk of complications from shin splints (stress fractures) especially if their bone density is less, which occurs in osteoporosis.